鲑鱼跑
Canadian salmon run on the Adams River; photo credit: Timothy Yue

340亿美元的计划拯救三文鱼,振兴PNW经济

来自爱达荷的共和党国会议员正在建议去除四个水坝,试图拯救DWWindling Salmon人群。它会花费数十亿美元来完成它。

如果您可以在150年前的爱达荷州的红鱼湖岸上站在,你可能会忍受着令人惊叹的冰川湖,带有产卵红鲑鱼。

The splashing of thousands upon thousands of sockeyes kept farmers awake as they migrated超过900英里的上游. And after a lifetime spent eating and swimming in the ocean, they returned to their original freshwater home. There, they leave their legacy of eggs and the nutrients of their bodies to start the cycle all over again.

In 2020, just 18 sockeyes returned to Redfish Lake. The incredibly diminished state of sockeye三文鱼他们的物种并不是独一无二的。哥伦比亚河流盆地曾经是野生宿煤的家园,steelhead, and Chinook as well. From more than 1 million salmonids ascending the Columbia and Snake riversto mere thousands, the species are all in definitive trouble.

来自爱达荷的共和党国会议员计划改变这一点。或者至少,给鲑鱼一个战斗机会。

水电问题和三文鱼

冰港大坝,爱达荷鲑鱼
The Ice Harbor Dam (pictured) would be removed starting in 2030; photo credit:JewelsPicsvia Shutterstock

目前,哥伦比亚和下蛇河沿着八个水电坝。下蛇的四个水坝为太平洋西北部的许多水电提供了低碳水电力。这些包括冰港,小鹅,较低的纪念和较低的花岗岩。但是庞然大巨头阻止了数千人杀死鲑鱼,减少了走廊的每个障碍的年度迁徙。

Additionally, nearly one-quarter of each customer’s electricity bill goes to wildlife mitigation mostly aimed at the salmon population, a 40-year$18 billion effort with minimal return. It’s estimated that each salmon that runs the river is worth thousands of dollars.

当然,大坝产生的清洁能量在今天的气候变化时代赞扬。联邦拥有的大坝提供职业,权力和农业经济,这些农业依赖于河流的增长运营和粮食运输。

Different Stakeholders, Differing Needs

indigenous salmon run
11月2日,2020年11月2日:一名美国原住民钓鱼在Deschutes河急流的鲑鱼在剪影桥上,从木平台,奥勒附近的木制平台划船桥。照片学分:鲍勃泳池

Rep.Mike Simpson(R-ID)提出的340亿美元计划考虑了大坝的积极属性。它还试图为他所谓的“鲑鱼战争”的解决方案提供了一个持续的诉讼,这是对联邦政府之间的环境组织,部落群体,垂钓者和俄勒冈州俄勒冈州的初学者之间的持续诉讼战斗。

代表。迈克辛普森做了他的研究,它没有小剂量。辛普森举行的300多次会议涵盖了四个大坝的影响所触及的每个社区。这包括在争论的各方面的那些,从依赖于当前的水坝系统的生物学家,了解了对部落领导者和群体的生态学家,长期依赖于现在的鲑鱼的生物学家。

根据辛普森的说法,问题不仅仅是“三文鱼或水坝?”这是一个详细的对话,了解对水坝和社区影响的益处。当然,那些社区需要提出新的解决方案的经济增压程度。大坝对许多社区有益;取代这些益处的成本很高。

但拜登政府展望了pass a $2-3 trillion bill专注于建立新的基础设施,专注于清洁能源为国家的未来。SIMPSON提出的340亿美元计划将不到该刺激计划的1-2%。

A $34 Billion Plan for Salmon Salvation

Called the “Energy and Salmon Concept,” the plan encompasses a detailed breakdown of financial resources necessary to rebuild and rewire each sector affected by the breaching of the dams. Communities affected include agriculture, transportation, power utilities, outdoor recreation, irrigators, the Army Corps of Engineers’ removal plan, tribal rights to waterway management, and more.

The plan has not yet been drafted into legislation, but it does provide a framework for future legislation. It would be called the Columbia River Basin Fund. Further, the Department of Energy would manage the fund from the Tri-Cities area of Idaho.

“I want to be very clear; I have not drafted legislation and I am not currently drafting legislation,” Simpson said. “A concept like this will take all the Northwest delegation, governors, tribes, and stakeholders working together to draft a solution. It will be no easy task and on a very tight timeline.”

考虑到过去40年的花费17-180亿美元尚未显示任何重大回报,违反这四大水坝,以便哥伦比亚河流域鲑鱼的鲑鱼确实有科学的影响力。和很多。

事实上,联邦政府最近发布了一个环境影响研究that supported dam removal for species recovery. Additionally, the西北能源联盟found similar results, saying that breaching the dams would provide recovery for salmon species and a subspecies ofwild orca dependent on Chinook salmon在盐水中。

A Hail Mary for Salmon

The dams aren’t the only issue that salmon face in their 1,800-mile round-trip migration. Warming waters, poor ocean conditions,increased predation from seals, and more are stacked against the recovery of Idaho’s salmon populations.

But allowing the natural course of the lower Snake River to run as it once did could provide a safe haven for young salmon and migrating salmon alike.

“爱达荷州的鲑鱼今天并不顺利,我认为没有迹象,即海洋状况或气候将在未来几十年中足够快地提高,以避免灭绝,”辛普森说。

“虽然我不确定删除四个[水坝]会带回爱达荷州的三文鱼,但如果我们不删除它们,我们的鲑鱼和钢头就是一定的灭绝道路。”

妮可qualtieri.
By

Based in Montana, Nicole Qualtieri is GearJunkie's Hunt + Fish Editor. When she's not writing or editing, she's likely hunting, fishing, or on the back of her little brown horse with a border collie named Butch Cassidy on heel in the mountains. Find her on Instagram at @nkqualtieri.

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